Green building = Ecological sustainability
Today’s ways of life affect the environment. Today’s households and other living spaces where people live or stay most of the time contribute to CO2 emissions and greenhouse effects as well as global supply, which threatens all living beings and their health, as well as natural resources that upset the balance. One of the solutions is to build a green house or an eco-house or a sustainable house. It is a house that is in itself energy efficient, ecologically healthy, respects the natural environment, pleasant for family life, sustainably designed, built of green or recycled material.
Green construction or low-energy construction is one in which energy consumption does not exceed 15kWh / m2, while low-energy houses consume up to 50kWh / m2. Costs are up to 10 times lower, and facilities are safer and more secure. This type of construction has a minimal impact on the environment, built with natural and renewable materials in order to save energy and better health.
In order for a house to have the eco prefix, at least 85% of the materials for building must be of natural origin. Natural materials do not collect dust and allergens, it is energy efficient, renewable, has better insulation and is more tolerant of soil movement compared to a building of traditional construction, it does not retain moisture and mold.
The building materials used in such construction are often referred to as green materials, and they include rapidly renewable plant materials such as bamboo, and straw, wood, stone, recycled stone, recycled materials that are non-toxic and reusable, such as wool, linoleum, paper, clay, linen, seaweed, cork, coconut, wood fiber, gypsum, lime, quartz sand, aluminum and water. Commonly used materials are clay and sand. When mixed with water, and straw or some other natural material, the mixture forms a flake or hawthorn-block of clay. In addition to these materials, sunflower seed husks or biofuel products are also used, as fungal materials and bioplastics obtained from blue-green algae. The most important economic element is insulation, the installation of an efficient heating, ventilation and air conditioning system.
These buildings are divided into high-mass and low-mass buildings. High-mass buildings have the ability to internally absorb, store and regulate heat. They heat up for a long time, and they need to cool down for a long time. Low-mass buildings heat up quickly, but also cool down quickly. Concrete, stone, brick, and wood have a high density, making them ideal for high-mass buildings. Energy efficient homes use high mass materials. This natural energy efficiency technique keeps the building cool during the summer and warm during the winter.
In order for a house like this to be fully energy efficient, it is necessary to install energy-saving windows, waterproof eco-boards made of recycled tetra packs or partition walls made of straw. A grass cover can be placed on the roof, which would add efficiency but also design.
The first such eco-house built in the World was located in London, the Street Farmhouse project in Eltham. The house was designed in 1972. in order to create an autonomous home that used materials and alternative technology, using microgeneration and recycled wastewater, in order to get rid of dependence on services provided by public and private suppliers. The project has attracted a great deal of attention, warning of growing concerns about environmental sustainability and energy security. However, this was short-lived. The request for the extension of the permit was rejected and the house was demolished after 3 years.
There are three types of aspects that can affect our lives and the environment by building such facilities.
Environmental aspects are related to energy, their renewable and consumption, water, air and soil pollution, gas emissions, resource renewal, climate change. Economic aspects includes to price of materials, their transport and processing, energy efficiency, productivity, as well as the development of the local economy. The standard of this construction combines different techniques and technologies to achieve ultra-low energy use. On the other hand, the social aspect is to provide social equality, preserve cultural heritage, involvement and education of the local community, as well as its safety and health.
The question is how good this house is for life or what makes it good for life? Sustainable architecture strives to minimize the negative impact on the environment by increasing efficiency and moderation in the use of space for materials, energy and development. Such houses are designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, save water and energy, and reduce waste.
Energy efficiency during its existence of the buildings is the most important individual goal of sustainable construction. Various techniques are used in the design to reduce the energy needs of the building and increase their ability to accumulate and produce their own energy.