MALINA-CRVENO ZLATO

RASPBERRY-RED GOLD

Malina je višegodišnja, žbunasta biljka iz porodice ruža, koja je poznata i po nazivu CRVENO ZLATO. Malina se rasprostire u Aziji, Severnoj i Južnoj Americi, Evropi, južnim delovima Afrike i Australiji. Najviše vrsta poreklom je iz Azije a najmanje iz Evrope.

In ancient times, raspberries were known in Europe among all peoples, whose fruits were picked in the forests and used for food and medicine. The first historical records of raspberries date back to the Roman Empire, where at the beginning of the new era Pliny the Elder, Roman author, states that raspberries grow abundantly on Mount Ida in Greece (in Asia Minor, not far from Troy), after which the red raspberry was named Rubus idaeus L. The first written information that comes from Russia, in the time of Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgorukov (1090-1157), the founder of Moscow, states that there are impassable little ones in the vicinity of that city. Raspberries were first grown in some gardens in England in 1548. In the following period, this country became the center of gardening, after which numerous written data about raspberries remained. In the book “New Orchard and Garden” from 1618, the priest William Lawson published a picture of a garden with raspberries. In the book “Paradise in the Sunny Earthly Paradise” from 1629, John Perkinson, English botanist, dedicates the entire first chapter to raspberries, and also mentions two types, red and white. In the book from 1729, botanist Langley describes three types, white, red and purple, and until the end of the 18th century, raspberries were mentioned in books by numerous authors about gardens. The London Horticultural Society published the “Fruit Catalog” in 1826, which contains 23 known species. Many varieties were created in East Malling in England in the 20th century. In North America, nurseryman V. Prince from the state of New York mentions three varieties in 1771: white, red English and red American, and his son V. R. Prince, 1832, as many as 18 varieties. Dr. W. D. Brickle (1799-1863) created many new varieties of raspberries. While E. S. Fuller, in his book “Berry Fruit” from 1867, gave impetus to the creation of the berry fruit processing industry. In the experimental centers of the USA in the 20th century, many varieties were created: willamette, killarney, ripley, octavia, heritage, munger, meeker, etc. In Russia, botanist Zinger published a book “Detailed instructions on growing fruit trees in our northern climate” in 1803 in Riga, in which he mentions raspberries, and then in 1829 he published a book in which he mentions three varieties of raspberries: better red killarney, better yellow malt and better American. In the 20th century in Russia, numerous new varieties were created.

Plodovi maline su slatkokiseli, vrlo ukusni, aromatični i lako svarljivi. Malina je dezertno voće, a plod se može koristiti u svežem ili smrznutom obliku, kao i za preradu: sok, sirup, vino, prirodni liker, kompot, slatko, džem, marmeladu, sladoled, kandirano voće, malinu u prahu i pulpi.

List se praktično koristi samo u narodnoj medicini za ispiranje usne duplje kod upale njene sluzokože, kod upale ždrela i kod dijareje. Ulazi u sastav mnogobrojnih mešavina za lečenje oboljenja kardio-vaskularnog, želudačno-crevnog sistema, menstrualnih i hormonskih poremećaja i avitaminoza. Takođe ulazi u sastav mešavina za prolećno čišćenje krvi. List maline može da zameni neke čajeve, kao što su indijski, gruzijski i ruski.

U mnogim zemljama se plod koristi u naučnoj medicini kao sredstvo za izbacivanje tečnosti, kod dijareje i ekcema. Ekstrakt iz ploda deluje protiv virusa. Pored toga on aktivira pankreas na lučenje insulina pa time snižava šećer u krvi. Koristi se i u prehrambenoj industriji.

U poslednje vreme se istražuje delovanje maline na maligne ćelije. Ustanovljeno je da elaginska kiselina, koje ima dosta u malinama, sprečava umnožavanje ćelija raka. Preventivno i suzbijajuće dejstvo ima i plod i čaj od lišća maline (i drugog jagodičastog voća: jagode, kupine i dr.). U terapiji malignih oboljenja maline nisu lek i ne mogu da ga zamene, ali su dobra zaštita od tih bolesti.

Najveći proizvođači maline u svetu, prema Agenciji za hranu i poljoprivredu Ujedinjenih nacija, su Rusija, Poljska, Srbija, SAD, Ukrajina, Meksiko, Velika Britanija, Kanada, Azerbejdžan i Španija.

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