Povratak u prošlost: Novi Beograd
New Belgrade is located on the left bank of the Sava. Administratively, its northeastern part begins on the right side of the Danube, just before the confluence of the Sava and the Danube. It is located northwest of “old” Belgrade, with which is connected by 6 bridges (Branko’s Bridge, Gazela, Old Sava Bridge, Old and New Railway Bridge, and the newest, via Ada Ciganlija, opened in 2011).
Evropski put E-75 prolazi kroz središte Novog Beograda. Glavna fizička osobina Novog Beograda je njegov ravan teren. Osim Bežanije, svog zapadnog dela, Novi Beograd je izgrađen na površini koja je u osnovi bila močvara kada je 1948. godine otpočela izgradnja novog grada. Godinama je na Novi Beograd donošen pesak sa dunavskog Malog ratnog ostrva, sve dok od njega nije preostao mali uski pošumljeni pojas zemlje koji postoji i danas.
Ostale geografske odlike Novog Beograda su poluostrvo Ada Ciganlija i ostrvo Ada Međica, oba na Savi, i zaliv Zimovnik, koji okružuje Malu Ciganliju, gde se nalaze objekti brodogradilišta Beograd. Lesne zaravni Bežanijske kose se nalaze u zapadnom delu opštine, dok u južnom delu protiče kanal Galovica koji se uliva u Savu.
Of all Belgrade’s city municipalities, New Belgrade has the most green areas.
Broj stanovnika koji živi u ovoj beogradskoj opštini je oko 220.000.
New Belgrade is one of the few settlements that was planned. According to the urban setting based on international ideas, architecture of international spirit, New Belgrade is a unique city of “light, sun and future”. It is characterized by wide boulevards and so-called blocks, residential neighborhoods, about we will write in this article. New Belgrade has 200 solitaires and six hundred large residential buildings. One of the most famous is the “West Gate of Belgrade”, on the right side of the highway towards Sremska Mitrovica, with two skyscrapers connected by a bridge at the top.
Prvi istorijski trag o naseljavanju teritorije sadašnjeg Novog Beograda vodi u vreme turske vladavine. Kruševski spomenik (1713) beleži da je selo Bežanija postojalo 1512. godine. Imalo je tada 32 kuće, da bi se do 1810. njihov broj uvećao na 115. U 18. veku stanovništvo je bilo isključivo srpsko. Posle odlaska Turaka, za vreme Austro-Ugarske, doseljavaju se i druge nacionalnosti: Nemci, Mađari i Hrvati. Između dva rata, u susedstvu sela Bežanija nikli su Novo naselje i Staro sajmište. Još 1923. bio je izgrađen prvi urbanistički plan koji je predviđao da se Beograd proširi i pređe na levu obalu Save. Uslovi nisu dozvoljavali da se ta ideja ostvari.
The construction of New Belgrade began three years after the Second World War, on April 11, 1948, when the cornerstone of New Belgrade was laid, and in the spring of 1948, a settlement surrounded on all sides by sand and swampy soil began to be built on the left bank of the Sava. The buildings sprang up one after the other, and four years later (1952) the municipality of New Belgrade was founded. The area has been turned into the largest construction site in the country, this part of Belgrade has unexpectedly quickly become a “city within a city”. It became the largest municipality in the Old Yugoslavia.
As we have said, the biggest characteristic of New Belgrade are the blocks, residential districts that got their names by their numbers. The authors of the blocks are urban planners Jovan Mišković and Milutin Glavicki. The first buildings in New Belgrade are Pavilions – the first New Belgrade block 1. Their architect was Branko Petričić, who worked out a plan for New Belgrade from the railway to the Danube. The part across the track is not tertiary, except for the first row of blocks. He named the blocks for that territory by numbers, starting from Block 1 across the road from the municipality, which was the first to be built, then Block 2 towards Zemun, Block 3, Block 4,…
Mišković i Glavičić su radili na planu širenja Beograda ka Savi i Bežaniji. I upravo se taj deo naziva Blokovi, pre toga Svinjska plažaKada se pogleada taj deo gradnje, postavlja se pitanje kako je numeracija uopšte išla? Zašto ide Blok 50, pa iza njega Blok 6, ili zašto blok 45, pa naspram njega 72. Jovan Mišković je objasnio da se radilo tako da urbanisti i ljudi na terenu mogu najbolje da se razumeju, da se opština naknadno širila i da je to razlog preskakanja brojeva. Drugo objašnjenje nije imao. Čak i oni koji su učestvovali u celoj priči od početka, nisu sigurni koja se logika primenjivala prilikom dodele brojeva.
On the left bank of the Sava, in three five-year plans, a new city was to emerge with embankments, wide streets, numerous promenades and all the modern requirements of modern urbanism. New Belgrade is divided into nine construction sites. The Palace of the Presidency of the Government and the hotel building on the Danube are the largest started facilities. The first building was named construction site number VII, the second construction site number VIII. These buildings were to be erected on unsafe, underwater terrain. It was therefore necessary to overcome the problem of the soil, which dies even under the weight of small buildings, let alone such colossi, which should be raised on it. Many constructors gave up such work in advance. But among those who were supposed to do the job was a larger number of those who believed in their own strength. The workers’ brigades worked continuously day and night for two whole years and came to positive results. Before the still unclear forms of certain parts of the future city sprang up in that part, persistent examinations were performed on that terrain. Experts also came to the machines for construction in the wetland, which were similar to the towers for drilling oil sources. Experts called them simply “makare”. About thirty such machines broke into the ground, sometimes 30m deep, into pylon poles. How deep the pylons will go was determined by technicians and surveyors, who examined the terrain and performed preliminary soil drilling. When the pylons penetrated into the depth, as much as it was necessary, cement was poured into their cavity and iron rods “anchors” were placed. That is how the pillars on which the building of the Presidency of the Government rests were placed. Only after that, the construction of the concrete structure began. For the delivery of materials needed for the construction of the building, a railway was set up, somewhere with several tracks. Trains and trucks brought thousands of tons of various construction materials every day, which quickly disappeared either in a wooden structure for reinforcement, or in the spacious jaws of a huge “Wolfkran” crane, which had the task of delivering concrete to the left and right wings of the building. In 1948, the entire right wing was raised. In 1949, the entire construction was completed and the palace of the Presidency of the Government was placed under the roof. The construction of a representative hotel, which lay on the swampy ground, was similar. Another construction system was applied to it. Instead of pillars, the building rests on a thick reinforced concrete slab, which maintains the safe position of the building with proper loading. On the hotel building, the planned task for 1949 was completed with 122%.
The student settlement is called construction site number IX, which included not only the student’s residential buildings, but also two five-storey residential buildings with a hundred apartments for employees, then the Faculty of Forestry, Economics, Law, Hydrometeorological Service, Cultural Center and many other facilities. Construction site number IX worked on 262 facilities for two years, most of which were completed quickly. Among other things, apartments were built for 5,000 professional workers of the company “New Belgrade”. At the end of July 1949, this construction site won the transitional flag of the federal government, as the best in the country. The student settlement in the current framework includes four L-shaped blocks, which were completed at the end of 1949. Each of their buildings is 102 meters long and can accommodate 4,000 students.
Of the three construction sites at the time, the largest was a residential colony – construction site number VI. Its facilities were not the largest but there were the most. 42 buildings were built on it. This housing colony comprises 2,800 apartments.
An average of about 100,000 people, young people, experts, took part in the construction of New Belgrade every year.
Kada je 1952.god. formirana opština Novi Beograd, imala je 8.000 stanovnika. Radi nastavljanja i uspešnije izgradnje Novog Beograda, u aprilu 1956. godine formirana je direkcija za izgradnju Novog Beograda. Od 1960. godine ponovo su započete aktivnosti na izgradnji stambenih objekata, a 1962. godine izgrađen je i konačan regulacioni plan.
Kao treća faza izgradnje Novog Beograda obeležena je 1968. godina, kada su omladinske radne brigade nastavile izgradnju stambenih i poslovnih objekata.
Danas, je Novi Beograd najurbanizovanija opština u Srbiji. Poslovni i finansijski centar. Takođe, još uvek se izgrađuje. I dalje niču nova naselja. Jedan od njih je i Beograd na vodi, na obali Save. Sam Beograd je jedan od retkih gradova (glavnih) koji leži na dve velike, međunarodne reke, što njegovu arhitekturu i lepotu čini jedinstvenim.