Šta je medicinski kanabis (marihuana)?

What is medical cannabis (marijuana)?

Izraz medicinski kanabis odnosi se na upotrebu cele, neobrađene biljke kanabis ili njenih osnovnih ekstrakata za lečenje simptoma bolesti i drugih stanja. Međutim, naučna studija hemikalija u biljci kanabis, zvanih kanabinoididovela je do dva leka odobrena od mnogih država koji sadrže kanabinoidne hemikalije u obliku tableta. Kontinuirana istraživanja mogu dovesti do više lekova. Budući da biljka kanabis sadrži hemikalije koje mogu pomoći u lečenju niza bolesti i simptoma, mnogi ljudi tvrde da bi to trebalo biti legalno u medicinske svrhe. U stvari, sve veći broj država legalizovao je marihuanu za medicinsku upotrebu.

Countries require carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) in hundreds to thousands of human subjects to determine the benefits and risks of a possible medication. So far, researchers haven’t conducted enough large-scale clinical trials that show that the benefits of the cannabis plant (as opposed to its cannabinoid ingredients) outweigh its risks in patients it’s meant to treat.

Kanabinoidi su hemikalije povezane delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), glavnim psihoaktivnim sastojkom. Biljka sadrži više od 100 kanabinoida. Neki od ovih kanabinoida su izuzetno moćni i doveli su do ozbiljnih zdravstvenih efekata prilikom zloupotrebe. Telo takođe proizvodi sopstvene kanabinoidne hemikalije. Oni igraju ulogu u regulisanju užitka, pamćenja, razmišljanja, koncentracije, kretanja tela, svesti o vremenu, apetitu, bolu i čulima (ukus, dodir, miris, sluh i vid). Trenutno su dva glavna kanabinoida iz biljke marihuane od medicinskog značaja THC i CBD.

Currently, the two main cannabinoids from the marijuana plant that are of medical interest are THC and CBD. THC can increase appetite and reduce nausea. THC may also decrease pain, inflammation (swelling and redness), and muscle control problems. Unlike THC, CBD is a cannabinoid that doesn’t make people “high.” These drugs aren’t popular for recreational use because they aren’t intoxicating. It may be useful in reducing pain and inflammation, controlling epileptic seizures, and possibly even treating mental illness and addictions. Many countries approved a CBD-based liquid medication called Epidiolex for the treatment of two forms of severe childhood epilepsy, Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

Mnogi istraživači, nastavljaju sa istraživanjem mogućih upotreba THC-a, CBD-a i drugih kanabinoida za lečenje. 

Nedavne studije na životinjama pokazale su da ekstrakti marihuane mogu pomoći u uništavanju određenih ćelija raka i smanjiti veličinu drugih. Dokazi iz jedne studije o ćelijskoj kulturi na glodarima ukazuju da prečišćeni ekstrakti marihuane sa celim biljkama mogu usporiti rast ćelija raka iz jedne od najozbiljnijih vrsta tumora mozga. Istraživanje na miševima pokazalo je da tretman prečišćenim ekstraktima THC-a i CBD-a, kada se koristi sa zračenjem, povećava efekte zračenja koji ubijaju rak.

Naučnici takođe sprovode predklinička i klinička ispitivanja sa marihuanom i njenim ekstraktima za lečenje simptoma bolesti i drugih stanja, kao što su:

  • bolesti koje utiču na imuni sistem, uključujući:
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Multiple-skleroza (MS), što izaziva postepeni gubitak kontrole mišića
  • upala
  • bol
  • napadi
  • poremećaji u upotrebi supstanci
  • mentalni poremećaji

Korišćenje medicinske marihuane tokom i posle trudnoće

Some women report using marijuana to treat severe nausea they have during pregnancy. But there’s no research that shows that this practice is safe, and doctors generally don’t recommend it. 

Pregnant women shouldn’t use medical marijuana without first checking with their health care provider. Animal studies have shown that moderate amounts of THC given to pregnant or nursing women could have long-lasting effects on the child, including abnormal patterns of social interactions and learning issues.

Da li su ljudi sa zdravstvenim i starosnim problemima osjetljiviji na rizike marihuane?

Medicinska upotreba marihuane je prilično nova praksa. Iz tog razloga, efekti marihuane na ljude koji su oslabljeni zbog starosti ili bolesti su još uvek nepoznati. Stariji ljudi i oni koji pate od bolesti poput raka ili AIDS-a mogli bi biti ranjiviji na štetne efekte leka, ali potrebno je još istraživanja.

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